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I travel often on European trains, particularly Italian trains, and have learned the system well. It may seem intimidating, but getting around on Italy’s train system can be a snap once you know how it works.

Taking trains around Europe is the best way to connect cities in an efficient and cost-effective manner. Inter-European flights can be super cheap these days, but the hassle of getting to the airport and navigating security can make a flight more trouble than it’s worth.

italian trains at Rome's termini station
An Italian train waiting at the station

Rail Passes Past and Present

Many moons ago, a young and sweet Adventures with Sarah drove all the way up to Edmonds, WA to buy a rail pass for Europe from Europe Through the Back Door. Back in the dark ages, a rail pass was the easiest way for a foreigner to navigate the strange and distant world of European trains, giving total freedom on the rails and the ability to avoid dealing with train stations. Pick a destination, write the date on the ticket and hop the next train. Easy-peasy.

These days, European and Italian rail passes exist but are on the wane, partially because they are increasingly expensive. The typical rail pass costs a bit under $100 per day. That’s not a bad price if you plan to do lots of long trips to multiple countries but it’s hard to make them pay off in a single country or with short hops. As an example, I’m on one of the longest train rides you can take in Italy right now, Rome to Venice, and a last-minute ticket cost me $80.

Another downside of rail passes is that most long haul rides are on high speed trains with pre-reserved seating. Rail passes are accepted, but you must present them at the station and pay to reserve a seat. That’s just as much hassle, if not more, than just buying Italy train tickets.

Italian Train Companies

The main company for Italian trains is Trenitalia, also known as Ferrovia della Stato. It’s the national rail service of Italy. Their service covers practically every village in mainland Italy and usually offers a bus service to places without rails.

Book your Italian train ticket online or in person at the station

I think you’ve heard about Italian trains, no? That they are dirty, scary, rarely run on time. You’ve probably heard the urban legend of trains in the south being gassed and everyone losing their possessions to bandits. That was a whopper that went through the hostel crowd some years ago. It’s all rubbish.

Trenitalia is very different from the days when it needed Mussolini to make it run on time. Trains are usually clean-ish, somewhat on time and can be surprisingly comfy and modern. Imagine a train system that could whisk you from Los Angeles to San Francisco in 3 hours that is cheap, comfortable and serves great coffee. Americans can only marvel at Trenitalia.

The other major Italy train company, mainly for high-speed trains, is Italo. Italo offer a similar service level so go with whichever option suits you, they’ll both be good.

Buying Italian Train Tickets

Gone are the days of waiting in line for ages at a train station to buy Italian train tickets. These days, tickets can be purchased in a variety of ways.

At the Station

You can buy train tickets from the ticket window, as in the past. At the bigger stations you’ll have to take a number and wait your turn…which can be an investment in time. I’d suggest buying a ticket in person from a human only if you have a complicated situation, such as connecting Italian trains to French trains. Confirm your plans several times with the staff member and look over your ticket carefully. And certain that they give you all of your change if you’re paying cash.

The easier option at the station is to buy from the ticket machines. Most major stations will have computerized ticket machines in the station lobby or on the platform. The green or red ones are for standard tickets. If you see a blue ticket machine, that is usually for local rail services only.

Before you pick a machine to use, be sure it accepts your payment method. Not all machines take cash. The machines that take credit cards require you to have a chip in your card with a pin number. If you don’t have that, you will have to get in line to buy the ticket from a person.

Be careful to avoid the people at major train stations that want to “help” you with the ticket machines. These are often scam artists looking to make a buck. You don’t need help, but if you do, speak only to official Trenitalia staff in uniforms.

Travel Agencies

It is still an option to buy rail tickets from a travel agency in Italy. Most towns will have an Agenzia di Viaggi that has English speaking staff. The ticket may have a small commission, but if you are buying a complicated ticket or are in a town with a congested train station, this is a no stress way to take care of business. For example, I’m a big fan of the travel agency in Levanto, near the Cinque Terre, because the train stations often have long lines.


The absolutely best way to buy tickets is on the website. It is fast, easy and can be done on a smartphone. I buy my tickets with my phone and save the ticket PDF, then show the conductor. If you are traveling with a tablet or laptop, you can do the same thing – I saw a conductor scan a guy’s laptop screen on a train yesterday! Whatever works. If you don’t carry electronics, it is possible to print out a ticket bought online as well.

A couple of small caveats for online tickets; you will not be able to register if you are not an Italian citizen, which means you have to enter all of your info every time you buy a ticket. Also, some train tickets need to be bought at least a half hour ahead of time. If the train you want departs imminently and it looks sold out, there may be tickets available at the station.

Rail Europe also offers tickets online, but considering how easy it is to buy directly, I wouldn’t bother.

Which Class?

I’ve tried all of the classes on Italian trains. If you’re on a regional train or an Intercity train, the class won’t make any difference at all, except that your seat may be slightly wider. A typical regional train has no class. On the fast trains, the Frecce or “arrows”, the first or business class seats will be wider, with three across rather than four. They include a coffee and snack service, which amounts to Nescafe and crackers. Seats are often clustered around tables with outlets, which is nice if you’re a writer (like me) but not necessary and occasionally cramping for long legs.

The only reason I see for splurging for first class is the noise factor. Second class cars are LOUD. Italians love to talk–to each other, to their cell phones, to the conductor, to their coffee. The second class cars are always full of Italian families and the cacophony can be exhausting. First class is usually all business travelers and silent as the grave.

Validating Your Ticket

Trenitalia tickets must be validated before getting on the train. If you have a paper ticket, you need to find the green or yellow boxes at the platform and slip them in the slot to be stamped. If you can’t get it to work, slide the ticket to the left in the slot.

Online tickets do not need validation, even if they are printed. Those tickets already have the date and time of travel and are pre-validated.

Be aware that Trenitalia recently changed its policy on tickets. No matter what ticket you buy, it is valid only 4 hours after it is validated and must be used on the day it is issued for. What that means is that you cannot stockpile tickets and use them when you like. I used to buy a stack of tickets for traveling in between Cinque Terre towns and use them as I needed them, but now I have to buy my tickets for the specific day I intend to use them.

What is Italo?

Ferrovia dello Stato was the only game in town for many years. About 5 years ago, a new train service was introduced as a competitor, Italotreno. It is privatized, owned in part by Ferrari, and runs on a model similar to Ryanair. The earlier you book a ticket, the cheaper it is. There are multiple classes and features that you can pay for, like wifi and movie access. They operate mainly online and attract a younger crowd because of it, although they have offices and put ticket kiosks in at major stations.

Italo does not cover the whole of Italy, it only connects major cities. If you’re going from, say, Orvieto to Perugia, they don’t have any service at all. It occasionally goes to secondary train stations, like Rome’s Tiburtina station, which can be confusing.

The point of Italo is that the trains are super high speed with few stops, meaning that you can connect major cities faster and cheaper than with Trenitalia. The train cars are plush, with leather seats and power outlets. I took my son Rome to Naples on Italo, which took less than an hour (shaving 20 minutes off of Trenitalia) and costing $40 roundtrip. Not bad.

Specials and Deals

Because of the new competition on the rails, scoring cheap tickets can be a breeze, but only if you buy in advance.

Here are a few of type of special offers that I’ve seen:

Kids 15 and under traveling for free on certain routes.

3 for 2: Three tickets bought together for the price of two.

Round trip tickets to be used on the same day (day trip) for half price.

Discount codes from being on a mailing list

Overall, the best advice on Italian trains is to buy online and buy at least two days in advance. Compare the two companies for the best price and schedule. Arrive at the station at least 30 minutes before departure and show your ticket to get access to the platform. The high speed trains will show on platform monitors where your car will be, so you can wait in the right area. Once on board, sit back, relax, and marvel at how easy good public transportation can be.

AWS Staff

This post was published by the Adventures with Sarah team. Click here to find out more about the people that make everything at AWS happen.


  • Patty says:

    Thanks for the great information!

  • Cathy C says:

    I’ve traveled on Italian trains about a dozen times now, and the only problem I had was on a strike day. Now I know that transit strikes are announced in advance so I can better plan ahead. A general web search like “trenitalia strike information” will give you any upcoming dates. And, of course, Rick Steves has an article about it:

  • Mary says:

    We flew into Rome, arriving late afternoon. Hotel provided free Mercedes pickup at the airport. We had a nice dinner and let jet lag lure us to sleep. The next day we did sightseeing in the AM, took a 2 PM fast train to Florence arriving about 3:30 and took a taxi to our airbnb. I booked the train prior to leaving the US so we had reserved seats. There were four other people in our first class car. Yes we were served a snack. My husband falls asleep as soon as a train starts moving. We had no stops. So when the train stopped, we knew to get out. Our luggage was behind our seats so we could each see the other’s luggage at all times (except my husband was not a good watchman while asleep). It sure beats getting in a rented car and navigating our own way through the countryside (which does not permit either of us to sleep). Then in Florence trying to find a place to stow the car or turn it in for a week since visitors cannot take a car into the city! When we left we took a taxi to the airport and picked up a car for our second week because we were going to Montalcino which has no train service. And we needed a car for visiting wineries. And the owner of the airbnb left his residence pass for us so we could park in the town. When we went back to Rome to fly home, we went via Orvieto and had a few hours to see the town, then caught a regional train to Rome which took an hour and a half with multiple stops. My husband still slept, although we were in a more crowded car because the regional train had no first class service. And we had to leave our baggage on a rack that was out of sight while traveling, but we used bungee cords to strap it to the rack and lock it to the rack. It was not thief proof, but our bags would have taken a few more minutes to take, so we hoped a thief would select something easier and faster to steal and leave our bags. We once again took a taxi a short hop to our hotel to prepare to fly home the next day. By the way we selected different hotels in different neighborhoods so we could explore different places in Rome each time we stayed there. Again the hotel provided car service to the airport. (Ask about it, when you book. They usually have someone they use even if they do not advertise it. It will cost less than or about the same as a taxi. It feels really cool to have private car service when you don’t usually travel extravagantly.) I vote for trains when they make sense. But we are not afraid to rent. And we love that Rick Steves guide books tell you ahead where the parking lots are! Happy travels

  • Dave Wiegers says:

    Great information.My experience with Italian train travel has been interesting. Most recently we had a delightful trip from Rome Termini to Naples. Fast train. Clean and not crowded at all.My first experience with the Italian train system was a bit different. Back in 1976, my future wife and I were on our premarriage adventure/honeymoon in Europe (Come on – it was the late 60’s) and bought train tickets to Brindisi where we were to catch a ferry to Athens taking us through the Corinth Canal.We hopped on the train and it quickly got us to Bari, where we had to change trains for the trip south to Brindisi. Got off and onto the platform and started looking for our train to Brindisi. Found someone in authority and we were told there was no train to Brindisi today. We were crestfallen. We were not going to make our ferry and in turn our tour in Greece. We walked down the platform feeling sorry for ourselves and happened to spot an English language newspaper. I questioned the news seller about the paper. What is today? He told us and we realized we were a day ahead of the day we needed to be in Brindisi. Relieved we found a pensione to stay in and roamed around Bari. Learned Santa Claus was buried there and it was a major naval port for the US Navy.After a great meal and a good night’s sleep, we went to the train station and set off to Brindisi. We had not planned on the several “strikes” as we travelled south. The train would just stop and sit for a while an then take off again. We finally made it to Brindisi, jumped off the train; found a cab to take us to the ferry dock (charged an outrageous amount of lira) and made it. We were the last ones on the ferry. Quite a two days on the train. I now am so careful with my planning and am nearly OCD about knowing what day and date it is. LOL!!

  • Carol L. says:

    The advice I would give for buying any train ticket in person in Europe is write down the city and show it to the agent working with you! There are many cities that sound similar and I learned the hard way by going seven hours out of my way in Germany last fall.

  • Robert says:

    Hi Sara: Regarding: “The machines that take credit cards require you to have a chip in your card with a pin number. If you don’t have that, you will have to get in line to buy the ticket from a person.” This past March, we used a Trenitalia ticket machine in both Firenze SMN and Bologna Centrale to buy tickets. The credit card I used was a chip and signature (Marriott Rewards Visa card from Chase) and, in both stations, the transaction went through immediately. So, at least with the MRV card, it doesn’t have to be chip and pin.

  • Jeri says:

    Sarah,We will be traveling from Cinque Terre (Montessano) to Nice in September. We are planning on taking the train and would like to buy the tickets on line. Will it be too complicated for us to do this? Also, you say in your article that on line tickets don’t need to be validated, but you also say that, “no matter what ticket you buy, it is only valid for 4 hours after you validate it”. So what do we do if we buy on line tickets now? Will they be any good? Thanks for any info you can provide! We love following your travels and are rising to your challenge of packing light – one carry-on each for 3 1/2 weeks of travel! Yikes!!!

    • Tickets are valid for 4 hours after the time printed on the ticket, so if you buy a ticket for a regional train leaving at 2, it will theoretically be good until 6 if you must take another departure. You can buy French tickets at to coordinate with your Italian tickets, or see a local travel agent here.

    • Mary says:

      If you go to RailEurope website, you will see that on a weekday you can leave Monterosso at 1055 AM to Genoa as 12:25 on Train 666. Then go from Genoa at 12:58 to Nice at 4:00 PM. $47 2nd class; $61 first class. Easy. Only one transfer. Two other choices on the website if you don’t like those times.

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